The Chris Connor Bio-Discography
Technical Notes And Discographical Policies
by Iván Santiago Mercado

Generated on Nov 7, 2014


Special Codes And Symbols

This discography features a few special words, codes and symbols whose goal is to facilitate the handling of information about record companies. Some of those features merit commentary herein.

Record Companies: Ownership And Copyright

In this discography, every listed issue (i.e., a CD, a LP, etc.) is assumed to be an official item (i.e., released by the label that owns the masters), except when certain italicized words suggest otherwise. Examples:

1. 32 Jazz Licensed CD: 32108 — Warm Cool: The Atlantic Years (1999)
The word "licensed" indicates that this CD was properly licensed by the company in question (32 Jazz). In other words, the releasing company (32 Jazz) borrowed the masters from their rightful owner (Atlantic or its parent company) and paid the fees that are requested by USA law (fees to the artist, the songwriters, and the company).

2. Hallmark Public Domain CD: (England) 709482 — Chris Connor Sings Ballads Of The Sad Café (2010)
The words "public domain" indicate that the label in question (Hallmark) made no use of the original masters (owned, in this case, by Atlantic), resorting instead to copying or "burning" the album's numbers from previously released CDs or from a copies of the vinyl itself. Furthermore, Hallmark probably did not have to pay fees to the artists or the owners of the masters. Instead, the company took advantage of European copyright laws that allow for the re-release of music performances after a certain lapse of time. That amount of time varies from European country to European country, but is generally far shorter than in the United States. (Fees might have been paid to the songwriters.)

3. Dynaflow Collectors' Label CD: DNYF 2007-1 — Stan Kenton In True '52 Stereo: Direct From The Famous Blue Note Jazz Club (2007)
4. Ajax Collectors' Label LP: Ajaz C-1618 — [Stan Kenton] Stan Kenton In Disco Order, Volume 15
The words "collectors' label" are used primarily to signal a company dedicated to releasing live performances, TV appearances, and radio broadcasts. In a secondary application, the words can also signal a Public Domain label that raises above its competition by issuing collections that are either filled with rare music or carefully put together (i.e., thoughtfully organized, well researched, appealingly designed).

Another feature in need of explanation is the symbol ©, which can be found in entries such as the following one:

5. ATLANTIC©Victor CD: AMCY-1078 (Japan) — The Best Of Chris Connor ("Ladies Sing Jazz" Series) (1991)
This entry stands for a CD of performances owned by Atlantic but released by Victor. The reason why the folks at Victor were able to issue the material was not that it was licensed to them, but rather that, at the time of this CD's issuing, Victor was the company in charge of Atlantic in Japan. As can be seen, the symbol © is located between the names of the two record companies. This symbol will always appear in similar cases and in the same position. In other words, any © will be preceded by the name of the company for which the original masters were recorded, and followed by the name of the label that released them.

Indexing considerations partially account for my decision to set up this special codification. By adding "Atlantic" and the © symbol, the discography's automated index will sequence together all issues that contain Atlantic masters, independently of the label that issued them.



Non-Connor Albums Included In This Discography

I have visually differentiated Chris Connor's items from CDs and LPs which are primarily by another artist, or by various artists. The visual difference stems from the fact that every non-Connor title starts with bracketed words, which should be self-explanatory. Examples:

1. [Various Artists] When Malindy Sings
2. [Stan Kenton] Some Women I've Known
3. Warm Cool
4. Free Spirits

The last two items are all-Connor issues. The first two items are not.

In the case of issues that give prominent billing to more than one artist, I have denoted the fact by including the co-billed names within braces. For instance:

5. Three Pearls {Ernestine Anderson, Chris Connor, Carol Sloane}



Policies For Foreign Issues

This sessionography concentrates on domestic (US) issues, and on original issues worldwide. In other words, foreign albums are included only when the artist under discussion (Chris Connor) actually recorded them abroad. If the foreign album is instead a reissue of an US album, I have listed it only under the circumstances noted below.

a) When there is no domestic CD of an original US album, I have included the earliest foreign CD issue.

b) When the title of a foreign CD or LP differs from its US counterpart, I have included the foreign item, for the benefit of fans and collectors who may need clarification.

c) Also included are all Connor releases on the Spain-based label Fresh Sound, because such releases have proven a source of fan confusion over the years.

d) I have made partial inclusion of foreign CD reissues with bonus tracks. By "partial inclusion," I mean that only the bonus-track numbers of such foreign CD reissues are listed.

To illustrate point (d), let's consider Atlantic AMCY 1072, which is the Japanese CD edition of the original US album A Jazz Date With Chris Connor. The Japanese disc includes not only the same 12 tracks as the American album but also two bonus tracks ("Señor Blues," "Misty"). In this discography, you will find Japanese CD AMCY 1072 listed under "Señor Blues" and under "Misty," but not under the 12 songs that first appeared in the American counterpart of A Jazz Date With Chris Connor.

I should further clarify that the above-made points apply to the main body of this discography (aka the sessionography), not to its indexes. Whereas I have excluded foreign editions of American albums from the sessionography, I have actually listed them in the Issues index, under the notes of each original American album. Should you be curious to see a list of, for instance, the Japanese editions of Chris Connor Sings Lullabys Of Birdland, consult the index's notes under that original 1957 album.